New York Architecture Images- Midtown

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Villauer, Shape & Bready


220 W42, bet.  Seventh and Eighth /221 W 41st St.




Renaissance Revival


The neo-Renaissance office tower is clad in white terra-cotta tiles, with arched triple windows rising the height of the 24-storey 42nd Street facade. There are four corner terraces flanking the cruciform top floor which is covered by a similarly cruciform hipped roof and a flagpole. 


Office Building




Candler Building


The Candler Building, New York City
Project Team: Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Co. (owner), Swanke Hayden Connell Architects (architect), Lehrer McGovern Bovis (general contractor).*
Project Cost: $25 million.
Fund Sources: Federal Historic Preservation 20-percent tax credit and New York City Incentive Commercial & Industrial Program (tax credits to train disadvantaged persons in the construction trades).
The Candler Building was built between 1912 and 1914 as a commission from Asa G. Candler, a founder of The Coca-Cola Co. It is located in Manhattan near Times Square. During rehabilitation, this 24-story, white terra cotta tower underwent restoration of the exterior envelope as well as a base building upgrade and interior modernization. Core spaces - including elevators, stairs, and restrooms - were replaced, relocated, and overhauled. State-of-the-art mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and fire protection systems were also installed.
Photo courtesy of Swanke Hayden Connell Architects
*List is not all-inclusive

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The story begins in Atlanta, Georgia on May 8, 1886, when a pharmacist called Dr John Smith Pemberton first mixed Coca-Cola in his back yard. The formula, which was made from carbonated water, cane sugar syrup, caffeine, extracts of Kola nuts and cola leaves, was brought to the nearby Jacobs' Pharmacy where it made its debut as a soft drink the same day, selling for only 5 cents. His bookkeeper named this drink "Coca-Cola" after the first two ingredients. And the same distinctive script he wrote it in, is the same logo they use to this day.

In January 1893 Coca-Cola was registered with the U.S. patent office. Later on in 1915 the Root glass company created the famous contour glass bottle for Coca-Cola in 1915.

In 1917 Coca-Cola was found to be the world's most recognized trademark with a record of 3 million Coke's sold per day. Unfortunately, John Pemberton fell ill, and did not live to see his product’s success.

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. Sadly, in the first year of Coke’s existance, Pemberton and his partner only made $50. Pemberton sold two-thirds of his business in 1888 to cover his losses and keep the business afloat.

He died later that year, and Mr Asa Candler, an Atlanta druggist, purchased total interest in Coca-cola for an unbelievable $2 300 in 1891. In 1891, Candler and his brother formed the Coca-Cola Company.

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In 1893 Candler registered Coca-Cola as a patented trademark. He also responded to growing concerns over the dangers of cocaine by reducing the amount of coca in the drink to a trace. However, he kept some coca extract in Coca-Cola so the name would accurately describe the drink. Candler only had a patent on the name, and not the drink syrup-that is, the drink's base, containing all the ingredients minus the carbonated water. He figured that keeping the coca in his formula would legally allow the company to distinguish its drink from imitations. Other companies also produced soda drinks made with kola nut extracts. In particular, the Pepsi-Cola Company and its cola of the same name would become Coca-Cola's major competitor over the next few decades.

Candler also spent more than $11,000 on his first massive advertising campaign in 1892. The Coca-Cola logo appeared across the country, painted as a mural on walls; displayed on posters and soda fountains where the drink was served; and imprinted on widely marketed, common household items, such as calendars and drinking glasses. In addition, Candler was the first person ever to use coupons to gain customers for a product. He distributed flyers offering free soda fountain glasses of Coca-Cola to people visiting his drugstore.

In 1894 the Coca-Cola company opened its first Coke syrup production plant outside of Atlanta, in Dallas, Texas. That same year a candy store owner in Vicksburg, Mississippi, installed bottling machines and produced the first bottled Coke. It had previously been sold only at soda fountains. By 1895 the drink was sold in all U.S. states and territories.

In 1899 lawyers Benjamin Thomas and Joseph Whitehead of Chattanooga, Tennessee, bought the exclusive rights to distribute Coke syrup to bottlers throughout most of the country for only one dollar. At the time, Candler saw little profit in bottling, and was more than willing to give up that part of the business.

In 1915 the Root Glass Company created a contour glass bottle for Coke, its design based on the curvature of a coca bean. This bottle design became a Coke trademark worldwide. The same year, Candler retired from the company, passing it on to his children and moving into politics. He was elected mayor of Atlanta in 1916.

In 1919 the Candler family sold Coca-Cola to businessman Ernest Woodruff of Columbus, Georgia, for $25 million. Woodruff's son, Robert, was elected company president in 1923. Robert Woodruff was a skilled marketer, and he put more of the compancompany's resources into market research than into manufacturing Coke. Two new Coke slogans were developed under Woodruff: "The Pause that Refreshes" (1929) and "It's the Real Thing" (1941).

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During World War II (1939-1945), Woodruff also boosted Coke's popular image in the United States by pledging that his company would provide Coke to every U.S. soldier. The company did not limit itself, however, to only doing business that would increase its success in America. In the period leading up to the war, between 1930 and 1936, it had set up a division of the company in Germany, and it continued that venture during the war. It recreated its image as a German company and allowed the Germans to produce all but two, secret, Coca-Cola ingredients in their own factories.

In 1941 the German company's president, Max Keith, developed Fanta orange soda using orange flavoring and all the German-made Coke ingredients. The Coca-Cola Company's wartime efforts helped it expand its global market, often with the economic support of the U.S. government.

By the end of the war in 1945, it had established 64 overseas bottling plants. That same year the company registered a patent on Coca-Cola's popular nickname, Coke.

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In 1955 Robert Woodruff retired as the Coca-Cola Company's president. Candler and Woodruff are remembered as the two most important figures in the company's early growth, both for their contributions to the company and their considerable fortunes donated to the city of Atlanta. After Woodruff's departure, the company began to diversify by producing new products, acquiring new businesses, and entering new international markets.
In 1960 the Coca-Cola Company purchased the Minute Maid Corp., producer of fruit juices, and began offering Coke in cans. Between 1960 and 1963 it also launched four new soft drinks in the United States: Fanta, an orange soda; Sprite, a lemon-lime soda; Tab, a diet cola; and Fresca, a diet grapefruit-flavored soda. In 1964 the company acquired the Duncan Foods Corp. In 1967 it created the Coca-Cola Foods Division by merging its Duncan and Minute Maid operations.
In the late 1960s, Coca-Cola faced difficulties in some of its foreign markets. When the company built a bottling plant in Israel at the outset of the Arab-Israeli War, the governments of all Arab League nations banned the production and sale of Coke. A year later the company withdrew from its markets in India when that country's government requested that Coca-Cola reduce its equity in joint ventures to 40 percent. The company refused to relinquish so much control over those operations.
In 1977 Coca-Cola began packaging Coke and other drinks in two-liter plastic bottles. The popularity of these large bottles grew over time, and their sales earned the company new profits, primarily in small specialty and convenience stores. In 1982 the company introduced Diet Coke, which soon became the best-selling diet soft drink in the world.

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Also in 1982 Coca-Cola purchased the motion-picture company Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc., also known as Tri-Star Pictures, for almost $700 million. Two years later, the company sold off its Columbia holdings and other media aquisitions to Sony Corporation for over $1.5 billion.
By 1984 Pepsi-Cola had gained on Coke's previous domination of the U.S. market to the point that the two had almost equal sales. In an attempt to regain market dominance, the company attempted the first-ever revision of the original Coke recipe. The American public largely rejected New Coke, and so the company quickly returned to also producing the old recipe under the name Coca-Cola Classic.


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In 1986 The Coca-Cola Company consolidated all of its nonfranchised U.S. bottling operations as Coca-Cola Enterprises, Inc. The new company began acquiring independent bottling companies, a venture that grew into the world's largest bottler of soft drinks by 1988. While Coca-Cola Enterprises distributes over half of all Coca-Cola products in the United States, small franchise businesses continue to bottle, can, and distribute the company's drinks worldwide.

In 1987 the Coca-Cola Company was listed in the prestigious Dow Jones Industrial Averages index of stock market performance. Its stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange. Coca-Cola and PepsiCo products occupied nine of the top ten spots in the U.S. soft drink market in the mid-1990s. Worldwide, Coca-Cola ranked first in soft drink sales, and the company earned almost 80 percent of its profits from international sales.

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30 pounds of sugar
2 gallons of water
2 pints of lime juice
4 ounces of citrate of caffeine
2 ounces of citric acid
1 ounce of extract of vanilla
6 grams (3/4 ounce) of fluid extract of cola
6 grams of fluid extract of coca nuts
Carbonated water, to taste (viscosity?)

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  • Mountain Dew - 55.0

  • Diet Mountain Dew - 55.0

  • Mello Yellow - 52.8

  • Tab - 46.8

  • Coca-Cola - 45.6 

  • Diet Cola - 45.6

  • Dr. Pepper - 39.6

  • Pepsi Cola - 37.2

  • Aspen - 36.0

  • Diet Pepsi -  35.4

  • 7 Up - 0

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  • 1886: "Drink Coca-Cola"

  • 1904: "Delicious and Refreshing"

  • 1905: "Coca-Cola Revives and Sustains"

  • 1906: "The Great National Temperance"

  • 1917: "Three Million a Day"

  • 1922: "Thirst knows no season"

  • 1925: "Six million a day"

  • 1927: "Around the corner from everywhere"

  • 1929: "The pause that refreshes"

  • 1932: "Ice-cold sunshine"

  • 1938: "The best friend thirst ever had"

  • 1939: "Coca-Cola goes along"

  • 1942: "Wherever you are, whatever you do, wherever you may be, when you think of refreshment, think of ice-cold Coca-Cola"

  • 1942: "The only thing like Coca-Cola is Coca-Cola itself. It's the real thing"

  • 1948: "Where there's Coke there's hospitality"

  • 1949: "Coca-Cola ... along the highway to anywhere"

  • 1952: "What you want is a Coke"

  • 1956: "Coca-Cola ... making good things taste better"

  • 1957: "Sign of good taste"

  • 1958: "The cold, crisp taste of Coke"

  • 1959: "Be Really refreshed"

  • 1963: "Things go better with Coke"

  • 1970: "It's the Real Thing"

  • 1971: "I'd like to buy the world a Coke"

  • 1975: "Look up America"

  • 1976: "Coke adds life"

  • 1979: "Have a coke and a smile"

  • 1982: "Coke is it!"

  • 1985: "We've got a Taste for You (Coca-Cola and Coca-Cola classic) America's Real Choice

  • 1986: "Catch the wave (Coca-Cola) Red White & You (Coca-Cola classic)

  • 1989: "Can't Beat the Feeling"

  • 1990: "Can't beat the Real Thing"

  • 1993: "Taste It All"

  • 1993: "Always Coca-Cola"

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Coca-Cola® classic
caffeine-free Coca-Cola® classic
diet Coke®
caffeine-free diet Coke®
Cherry Coca-Cola®
diet Cherry Coca-Cola®
diet Sprite®

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Barq's® rootbeer
diet Barq's® root beer
Barq's® creme sodas
diet Barq's® creme sodas


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Master Pour™
Mello Yello®
diet Mello Yello®
Minute Maid® soft drinks and juices
diet Minute Maid® orange soft drink
Mr Pibb®
diet Mr Pibb®

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Nestea® iced teas
diet Nestea® iced tea
Cool from Nestea®
diet Cool from Nestea®

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The Minute Maid Company..
Minute Maid® Premium Orange Juice
Minute Maid® Premium Juices, Lemonades and Fruit Punches
Minute Maid® Soft Frozen Lemonade
Five Alive®
Bright & Early®
Bacardi® Tropical Fruit Mixers

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1886 - Coca-Cola
- Fanta (All flavours)
1961 - Sprite
1963 - TAB
1966 - Fresca
1972 - Mr Pibb
1974 - Sugar-free Sprite
1979 - Mello Yello, Ramblin Root Beer
1982 - Diet Coke
1983 - Caffeine-free Coca-Cola, Caffiene-free Diet Coke, Caffiene-free TAB, Sugar-free Sprite renamed Diet Sprite
1984 - Diet Fanta
1985 - Cherry Coke, Coca-Cola with a new taste, Coca-Cola Classic
1986 - Diet Cherry Coke
1987 - Minute Maid Orange soft drink, Diet Minute Maid Orange soft drink, Minute Maid Lemon-Lime soft drink, Diet Minute Maid Lemon-Lime soft drink
1989 - Diet Mello Yello
1990 - Caffeine-free Coca-Cola Classic, POWERaDE
1992 - New Coke renamed Coke II, Nestea
1993 - Minute Maid juices
1994 - Fruitopia


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  • Mexico and Iceland have the highest per capita consumption of Coca-Cola.

  • Coca-Cola translated to Chinese means, "To make mouth happy".

  • Every second over 7,000 Coca-Cola products are consumed.

  • If all the Coca-Cola ever produced were in 6 1/2 oz. bottles and placed end to end they would wrap arount the earth more than 11,863 times.

  • The tallest Coca-Cola bottling plants are in Hong Kong. The plant in Quarry Bay is 17 floors, and the plant in Shatin is 25 floors.

  • The bottling plant at the highest elevation in the world is located in Bolivia, at 12,000 feet.

  • The world's longest Coca-Cola truck is in Sweden. It is 79 feet long with a four-axle trailer.

  • The best selling non-carbonated soft drink in Japan is a product of The Coca-Cola Company named "Georgia", a coffee flavored beverage.

  • The Varsity Restaurant in Atlanta, Georgia, has earned the distinction of serving the highest volume of Coca-Cola anywhere. It dispenses nearly 3 million servings of Coca-Cola annually.

  • During 1886, sales averaged nine drinks per day (total -- not per person). Most recently, sales of Company products were more than 411 million drinks per day (total -- not per person).

  • 200 billion servings of Coca-Cola would fill 213,000 Olympic-sized swimming pools.

  • In 1894, the first syrup plant outside of Atlanta was opened in Dallas.

  • In 1928, sales of bottled Coca-Cola surpassed fountain sales for the first time.

  • If all of the Coca-Cola sold in 1994 were in 8-ounce bottles laid end-to-end, those bottles would reach to the moon and back 76 times.

  • In 1969, the code name, "Project Arden," was used for the introduction of a new graphic look for The Coca-Cola Company. The result? A consistent identity for packaging, advertising -- everything -- incorporating the signature Dynamic Ribbon.

  • Coca-Cola syrup was first shipped in used whiskey kegs and barrels -- but they were repainted red to give them a distinctive mark.

  • The greater Mexico City bottler produces the greatest volume of any Coca-Cola bottler on the globe.

  • The consumption of Coca-Cola classic in the United States exceeds each of the following: bottled water, juices, powdered drinks, wine and distilled spirits.

  • It took 58 years -- until 1944 -- to sell the first billion gallons of Coca-Cola syrup. Today, that billion gallon mark falls every 7-1/2 months.

  • Cuba and Panama were the first two countries to bottle Coca-Cola outside the United States.

  • If the Coca-Cola company constructed a sign like the ones McDonald's uses to count their millions of customers, by 1983 it would have read "over 1 trillion served."

  • Coca-Cola trucks travel over 1,000,000 miles a day to supply consumers with soft drinks.

  • John Pemberton walked the first gallon of Coca-Cola syrup to Jacob's Pharmacy on May 8, 1886. In the rain. Uphill. Both ways.  Today, the company and its bottlers rely on the largest commercial fleet in the world.

  • In 1894, the first syrup plant outside of Atlanta was opened in Dallas.

  • If all the Coca-Cola vending machines in the U.S. were stacked one on top of another, the pile would be over 450 miles high.

  • If all of The Coca-Cola Company products sold in 1994 were flowing over Niagara Falls at its normal rate of 1.5 billion gallons per second, the falls would flow for 3 hours.

  • 25 gallons of syrup were sold in 1886, compared to 1.6 billion gallons in 1985.

  • In 1886, Frank Robinson used his own pen and ink to script the first Coca-Cola trademark. Today, Coca-Cola is the most recognized trademark in the world, spoken in 80 languages.

  • If one bottle could be made large enough to contain all the Coca-Cola ever produced, it would be 6,365 feet high and 1,930 feet wide. A person of proportionate size to the bottle would be a giant 10.9 miles tall and weigh over two million pounds.

  • If all the Coca-Cola ever produced was in normal bottles placed end-to-end, they would wrap the earth 4,712 times.

  • Coca-Cola is the world's most recognizable trademark...recognized by 94% of the world's population.

  • This contour bottle is one of the two most known images of Coca-Cola, along with the Coca-Cola logo, which was designed by Frank M. Robinson.
    The logo was written in his handwriting.

  • The highly confidential formula is as much a secret today as it was 100 years ago. Only a few trusted company employees know its true contents, proper order and measure of mixing. The formula, known as merchandise "7X", is kept in a box in a special security vault in a bank in the United States.


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For God, Country and Coca-Cola.   A book written by Mark Pendergast.  The unauthorised history of the Great American Soft Drink and the company that makes it.

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A Coca-Cola collectibles Price Guide, written by Petretti.

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A Classic Coca-Cola Serving Trays book.


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All Coca-Cola Company trademarks and logos used in this site, are property of the Coca-Cola company.   Coca-Cola companies rights are reserved.  I am no way affliated with the Coca-Cola Company.  This site was designed for educational purposes only.

Special thanks to