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New York Architecture Images-Lower East Side

Congregation K’Hal Adath Jeshurun  (Eldridge Street Synagogue)  Landmark


Herter Brothers.


12-16 Eldridge St. bet. Forsyth and Canal Streets.


1886-7, restoration 1998, Giorgio Cavaglieri.


Gothic, Moorish Revival and Romanesque elements


brick, terracotta


The Eldridge Street Synagogue was the first synagogue built in the United States by Eastern European Jews. It opened at 12 Eldridge Street in New York's Lower East Side in 1887. The building was designed by the architects Peter and Francis William Herter, the Herter Brothers. The brothers subsequently received many commissions in the Lower East Side and incorporated elements from the synagogue, such as stars of David, in their buildings, mainly tenements.[2] When completed, the synagogue was reviewed in the local press. Writers marveled at the imposing Moorish-style building, with its 70-foot-high vaulted ceiling, magnificent stained-glass rose windows, elaborate brass fixtures and hand-stenciled walls.

Thousands participated in religious services in the building's heyday, from its opening through the 1920s. On High Holidays, police were stationed in the street to control the crowds. Rabbis of the congregation included the famed Rabbi Abraham Aharon Yudelovich, author of many works of Torah scholarship. Throughout these decades the Synagogue functioned not only as a house of worship but as an agency for acculturation, a place to welcome new Americans. Before the settlement houses were established and long afterward, poor people could come to be fed, secure a loan, learn about job and housing opportunities, and make arrangements to care for the sick and the dying. The Synagogue was, in this sense, a mutual aid society.

For fifty years, the Eldridge Street Synagogue flourished. Then membership began to dwindle as members moved to other areas, immigration quotas limited the number of new arrivals, and the Great Depression affected the congregants' fortunes. The exquisite main sanctuary was used less and less from the 1930s on. By the 1950s, with the rain leaking in and inner stairs unsound, the congregants cordoned off the sanctuary.

Without the resources needed to heat and maintain the sanctuary, they chose to worship downstairs in the more intimate house of study (Beth Hamedrash). The main sanctuary remained empty for twenty-five years, from approximately 1955 to 1980. Currently, after extensive renovations, evening services are held in the Beth Hamedrash and daytime services in the main sanctuary.

The Eldridge Street Synagogue was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1996.

Renovation and reopening
On December 2, 2007, after 20 years of renovation work that cost US$20 million,  the synagogue reopened to the public. It continues to serve as an Orthodox Jewish synagogue, with regular weekly services, and is also a museum for American Jewish history and the history of the Lower East Side.
FACADE -- The Synagogue's facade combines Gothic, Moorish and Romanesque elements. The design uses a numbering pattern that may be drawn from Kabbalah; for example, the twelve roundels of the rose window representing the twelve tribes of Israel and five keyhole windows for the Five Books of Moses.
ARK (Aron Kodesh) -- This is the Holy Ark in which scrolls of the Torah (sifrei torah) are stored. This one is made of hand-carved walnut. The Ark is traditionally built on the wall which faces Jerusalem--in the Western Hemisphere, usually on the East wall. The doors of the cabinet at Eldridge Street still open with the touch of a finger, and the red velvet lining dates back to the 1887 opening. Eldridge Street's Ark is large enough to hold 24 Torah scrolls. Three are now used by the congregation in their ground floor Beth Hamedrash; the remainder are kept in a bank vault for safe-keeping.
READER'S PLATFORM (Bimah) -- The table upon which the Torah scroll is read. The location, in the center of the sanctuary, follows the older European tradition. The central location is to insure that all can hear the reading of the Torah, and refers to the location of the sacrificial altar in the Temple in Jerusalem. In many American synagogues the bimah is placed in the front of the congregation near the Ark. In Sephardic synagogues the bimah is generally located in the rear.

LECTERN (Amud) -- Rabbis and guest speakers would give talks from this pulpit. During the period of the Synagogue's heyday, speeches would probably have been in Yiddish. The music stand below, adjustable to height, was for the cantor (chazzan). With its wonderful acoustics, Eldridge Street was known for sponsoring high quality cantors; tickets to their performances were sold as a way of attracting new members.

EZRAS NASHIM -- The women's section, located on the balcony or gallery level. In a traditionally Orthodox congregation such as the one at Eldridge Steet, separate seating is maintained for men and women. An area of the main sanctuary, set apart by a curtain (mechitza), would have been available for older women who had difficulty climbing the stairs.

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MURALS -- The trompe l'oeil (trick-of-the-eye) mural to the left of the Ark has already been restored. Compare it to the more damaged one on the right side. These murals represent curtained windows looking onto an idealized Jerusalem. Trompe l'oeil effects are used in other parts of the sanctuary, too. For example, wooden column surfaces are painted to look like marble.

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STAINED GLASS -- Most of the stained glass windows have been removed for restoration. Crates on the north side of the sanctuary contain glass at various stages of work. Several windows are complete: a rectangular one in the south stairwell leading to the balcony; a Star of David (magen david) roundel in the rose window on the west facade, keyhole windows on the East and West facades, a large arched window in the southwest corner of the balcony, and a square window on the south side of the sanctuary on the street level.

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ILLUMINATION -- The sanctuary space was always brilliantly illuminated. Skylights in the roof would allow natural light to flood into the sanctuary throughout the days. The four brass fixtures and glass shades which stand at the corners of the Eldridge Street bimah were originally illuminated by gas and were electrified in the 1920s. Brass fixtures (three on every column) and an enormous chandelier hanging from the chain in the center of the space have been removed for repair and restoration. The menorah and eternal light (ner tamid) will also be returned to their proper places at the front of the sanctuary.
The not-for-profit Eldridge Street Project, established in 1986, is restoring the landmark Eldridge Street Synagogue as the focal point of a heritage center on the Lower East Side. Tours, exhibits and discovery programs keep alive the memory of Jewish immigrant life at the turn of the last century, explore architecture and historic preservation, inspire reflection on cultural continuity, and foster inter-group exchange.

The 1887 Synagogue is the first great house of worship built on the Lower East Side by Eastern European Jews. From its opening, the Eldridge Street Synagogue has been a symbol of the religious freedom and economic opportunity sought by so many immigrants to America. It is the most significant remaining marker of the huge Jewish community that flourished on New York's Lower East Side from the 1850's to the 1940's. Today, it is an inspiration to all those who visit and experience its beauty, rich history and soul. In recognition of the building's architectural magnificence and its role in the American immigrant experience, the Eldridge Street Synagogue was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1996.

The Eldridge Street Project was founded by local residents, urban historians and preservationists, who joined together to rescue the building, then in a dire state of deterioration from neglect and water damage and to spearhead a major restoration effort.

To date approximately half of an estimated $15 million Completion Campaign has been raised and applied to building improvements and we anticipated completing the Synagogue restoration by the beginning of 2007. The Synagogue is stable and secure, and a master plan has been prepared to guide the restoration. Current work includes the installation of new heating, air-conditioning and ventilation systems to protect the building, as well as access for disabled visitors. A final phase will restore the paint finishes, stained-glass windows, and other aesthetic elements.

Alongside this major restoration effort, the Eldridge Street Project has opened the Synagogue to the public, offering tours, lectures, concerts, readings, festivals, family events, and other special programs that interpret the history of the landmark Synagogue and its immigrant neighborhood. More than 20,000 people, representing diverse cultural and religious backgrounds, visit the building each year. They learn about architecture, about American-Jewish history, about their own roots on the Lower East Side and about the common bond of immigration that links so many Americans.



The Eldridge Street Synagogue was built in 1886-87 as a house of worship for K'hal Adath Jeshurun, a congregation of immigrants from Russia, Roumania and Poland (later the congregation merged with another group and added the name "Anshe Lubz"). The congregation, founded in the 1850's, was the first Eastern European Orthodox Jewish congregation in America, and its members had worshipped -- as had thousands of New York Jews -- in tenements, storefronts and former churches vacated by earlier settlers on the Lower East Side.

By the 1880s their ranks were bolstered by the great waves of immigrants who fled the violent pogroms of Europe. Fearing for their lives and property, they sought a new life in America and arrived daily on the Lower East Side. Many of the original congregants had prospered by this time, and so it became possible to leave behind several temporary shuls for a large synagogue building of their own.

Both Sephardic and German Jews, who preceded the Eastern Europeans in America, had already established their own synagogues. Eldridge Street was the first synagogue built to be a synagogue by Jews from Eastern Europe.

The Synagogue's Glory Years
Image from Century Magazine, 1892 When completed in 1887, the Eldridge Street Synagogue was "reviewed" in the local press. Writers marveled at the imposing Moorish-style building, with its 70-foot-high vaulted ceiling, magnificent stained glass rose windows, elaborate brass fixtures and hand-stenciled walls.

Thousands participated in religious services in the building's heyday -- so many that, on High Holidays, police were stationed in the street to control the crowds. The diverse membership of K'hal Adath Jeshurun exemplified the immigrant spirit, the resilience, artistry and accomplishments of first generation Americans. The artists Ben Shahn and Max Gropper, the performers Eddie Cantor, Paul Muni and Edward G. Robinson, and scientist Jonas Salk were among those who attended Eldridge Street in the early decades of this century.

Throughout the years the Synagogue functioned not only as a house of worship but as an agency for acculturation. Before the settlement houses were established and long afterward, the Synagogue was a place where poor people could secure a loan, hungry people would be fed, job opportunities were publicized, and arrangements were made to care for the sick and the dying. It was, in this sense, a mutual aid society.

Years of Struggle
For fifty years, the Synagogue flourished. Then membership began to dwindle as immigration laws changed, members moved to other parts of New York City and America, and the Great Depression affected the congregants' fortunes. The exquisite main sanctuary was used less and less during the 1930s, and was abandoned some time in the mid-1950s.

The space remained empty for nearly thirty years, from approximately 1950 to 1980. Without the resources needed to heat and maintain the sanctuary, the congregants chose to worship downstairs, as they do today, in the more intimate house of study ("Beth Hamedrash"). By the 1960s, with the rain leaking in and the inner stairs unsound, the congregants cordoned off the sanctuary.

The Rescue
In the late 1970s, when the Synagogue building was in serious jeopardy, it came to the attention of an NYU professor who led walking tours of the neighborhood. He rallied together a volunteer organization, the Friends of the Eldridge Street Synagogue, to rescue the historic Synagogue. This dedicated group recognized the building's architectural distinction and its significance for American Jews.

The building was at this point in a dire state of deterioration. The roof was virtually useless in stopping rain and roosting pigeons, the foundation had suffered severe structural damage, plaster and paint fell steadily, and one of two sets of stairs had collapsed.

The Friends secured emergency funds from public and private sources. They began the process to secure landmark designations, and organized the emergency stabilization of the building's exterior, which was completed in 1984. The Eldridge Street Project, Inc. was established shortly thereafter.

Restoration About the Restoration
By the end of 1987, the Synagogue's 100th anniversary, the Eldridge Street Project had raised $1.5 million to begin the first phase of construction. A Historic Structures Report prepared by architect Giorgio Cavaglieri was the basis for the phase one rescue and stabilization effort. Work commenced in 1989. At that time the Project closed the Synagogue building to the public for two years and arranged a space for the small congregation to convene in the synagogue and thus continue their unbroken chain of worship there. Offices and public program functions moved to a rented space half a block away.

The building's foundation has now been excavated, reinforced and stabilized; all of the windows have been sealed with protective Lexan; the exterior has been made watertight; all rotten and insect-infested structural members have been removed and replaced; one of the stairways has been rebuilt; six major stained glass windows have been restored and reinstalled; the building has been fully pre-wired for the installation of new electrical and HVAC systems; the Beth Hamedrash has been plastered and painted; new offices and a gallery space have been created.

In 1991, a restoration Master Plan was completed by the firm of Robert Meadows, Architects. This comprehensive document provides the blueprint and philosophy for restoration work from this point on. The next phase of restoration work will make the once endangered Synagogue fully functional. Once the roof and skylight system are restored, and new heating and ventilation systems are in place, work on the aesthetic elements will proceed systematically.

Work proceeds when funds are in place to complete in their entirety one or more of the discrete phases outlined in the Master Plan.

The Eldridge Street Synagogue is a New York City Landmark, is on the National Register of Historic Places, and, in 1996, was honored by the Federal government with National Historic Landmark status. This new status acknowledges that the Synagogue is a national treasure with historical significance for all Americans.

The Eldridge Street Synagogue was completed in 1887. It is the first building designed and built to be a synagogue by the Jews from Eastern Europe--from whom 80% of American Jews descend. Eldridge Street was one of the busiest synagogues on the Lower East Side--as many as 1,000 people attended holiday services here at the turn of the century. Membership began to dwindle in the 1920s when U.S. immigration laws stemmed the tide of new immigrants. At the same time, many neighborhood residents were prospering, and public transportation systems made it possible for them to move uptown and to other boroughs. By the 1940s the sanctuary was used only for holidays and special events; most services took place, as they do today, in the beth hamedrash (house of study) on the ground floor. The sanctuary was closed in the mid-1950s.

Twenty five years later, a local effort was initiated to rescue the building, then in a dire state of deterioration from neglect and water damage. The not-for-profit Eldridge Street Project was incorporated in 1986 to spearhead the restoration. To date, approximately one-third of an estimated $10 million capital campaign has been raised and applied to building improvements. The Synagogue is now stable and secure. Against tremendous odds, the Eldridge Street Congregation (known as K'hal Adath Jeshurun with Anshe Lubz) has survived, not missing a Sabbath or holiday service in over 110 years.

The Congregation meets for services in the Beth Hamedrash downstairs every Sabbath and on Jewish Festival days. Continuing the traditions of Eldridge Street's founders, the Congregation observes Orthodox practice. Congregants do not ride or carry objects on Shabbat, and there is separate seating for men and women.

An Aging Synagogue Propels a Philanthropist on a Quest for Identity

With a $1 Million City Grant, Project at Eldridge Street Shul Sparks a Battle Over Church-State Separation


For years, Roberta Brandes Gratz, the product of an "over-assimilated" family, grew up with barely a semblance of Jewish identity. Coming of age in Greenwich Village, Ms. Gratz had virtually no connection to the vibrant Jewish history of the Lower East Side, a mere 15-minute walk away.

But one of her life's defining moments came in 1986 when her friend, attorney Bill Josephson, brought her to the derelict Eldridge Street Synagogue near Canal Street. Mr. Josephson had discovered the synagogue by chance, Ms. Gratz recalled, and he asked her to "come help determine if it was worth the rest of our lives saving it."

It was. A well-known urban critic, Ms. Gratz already had an appreciation for historic sites and an intricate understanding of civic landmarking. But as she toiled to rejuvenate the synagogue, she also discovered a renewed sense of Jewish identity. "I walked into this building and felt connected to something I hadn't been connected to," she remembered. "This place added such a wonderful dimension of depth and attachment to the many threads of my life."

Ms. Gratz founded the Eldridge Street Project — a non-sectarian, not-for-profit organization — in 1986 in order to preserve the synagogue, the first house of worship in the United States built by Eastern European immigrant Jews. "This is the preeminent landmark of the great Eastern European immigration of the 20th century," said Ms. Gratz. "This is it for the Ashkenazis."

Eyebrows were raised last month when the New York City Council and the office of the Manhattan borough president granted $1 million to help restore the synagogue, a move that has provoked outcries about the blurring of the line between church and state.

But the congregation housed in the synagogue, K'hal Adath Jeshurun with Anshe Lubz, has no plans to buy a new Torah or build a new social hall. "We're totally separate," said Ms. Gratz, adding that the project is legally distinct from the congregation. "We're totally in charge of the non-religious programs and we have nothing to do with the congregation's programs."

Jews have prayed, uninterrupted, at the synagogue for 109 years. For decades, the congregation flourished but, as the Jewish population in the Lower East Side began to dwindle, so did the synagogue's membership. By the 1960s, the bright, spacious main sanctuary had to be cordoned off because of its disrepair and the congregation moved its services to a cramped downstairs sanctuary.

Before the restoration of the Eldridge Street Synagogue, the impressive Moorish-style building was in such disarray that it was structurally unsafe, the roof was leaking and one of two staircases had collapsed. Since the synagogue's "discovery," however, millions of dollars have been pumped into its repair. The Project secured the foundation, restored the stained glass windows and recently added a new slate roof with skylights.

There is more to go. "While the inside is as terrible as it looks, at least the outside is okay," Ms. Gratz said. Indeed, the main sanctuary is dusty and musty, the wood is worn and the foundation is exposed through the walls. But Ms. Gratz's pride is noticeable as she looks around the room. With its 70-foot ceilings, its powerful sense of history and the sunlight streaming through its many stained glass windows, the main sanctuary in the Eldridge Street Synagogue is breathtaking.

Unlike the sanctuary's impressive architecture and intricate embellishments, Ms. Gratz, 60, presents a no-nonsense appearance. Dressed entirely in black, she wears her salt-and-pepper hair cropped short. The author of two books, "The Living City: Thinking Small in a Big Way" and "Cities Back from the Edge: A New Life for Downtown," she is articulate about her involvement with the synagogue, a passion she said she would have "forever." To date, Ms. Gratz has helped raise $4.5 million, funding that has been applied both to programming and to restoring the synagogue to its former grandeur.

The money recently awarded by the city, she said, is going strictly toward improving the synagogue's infrastructure. The cavernous interior has raised difficult heating, plumbing and electrical challenges that the Eldridge Street Project hopes to overcome. "We were thrilled to abide by the city's stipulations," said Ms. Gratz. "Heating and electricity are what we need most of all."

Others are uneasy about the city's sponsorship of the restoration. "We think that it raises serious constitutional questions," said the executive director of the New York Civil Liberties Union, Norman Siegel. "From what we've heard it's constitutionally suspect," he said, adding that the use of the landmark status for skirting the church-state divide is "troublesome."

Ms. Gratz is not convinced. "I understand the critics' questions when they don't know what goes on in the building," she said. "But once they know what goes on, their criticism evaporates." The Eldridge Street Synagogue, a national historic landmark, is a beautiful structure that helps enhance the civic life of the city, she noted.

"This synagogue is the consummate Jewish legacy, but it's now serving the public in a very 21st century way," said Ms. Gratz, citing the variety of groups served by the Eldridge Street Project's educational programs and the project's sponsorship of art installations, panel discussions and community dialogues. "It's not just a synagogue; it's not a museum. This is a hands-on place."

No Panic On Eldridge Street
Steve Lipman - Staff Writer
Tours and services are unabated at historic Lower East Side synagogue.  Michael Datikash

Tuesday was quiet at 12 Eldridge St.

Around lunchtime, a few workers from the Lower East Side neighborhood opened the unlocked front gate at the Eldridge Street Synagogue to eat their meal sitting on the stairs. A group of tourists from Toronto who happened to walk down the street when a tour of the landmark synagogue was about to start opened an adjacent gate, also unlocked, to climb down a small set of stairs to check a notice posted on the door.

Tuesday was the first day this week that the Eldridge Street Synagogue was open after a cover story in Time magazine, “Al-Qaeda in America,” identified the building as a possible target of the Islamic terrorist organization and the New York media gave the synagogue publicity it did not seek.

The fact that the synagogue’s gate was open, and that no police or other security personnel were visible outside, reflected the opinion of synagogue officials and local security experts that the report in Time was a false alarm.

The synagogue, which experienced a diminishing membership through much of the 20th century although it achieved landmark status in 1996, is hardly the most inviting target in New York City for terrorists with anti-Semitic motivations. There are larger, more prominent congregations uptown.

But the likely erroneous report about the synagogue invites another question: How prepared is the Jewish community for an actual threat against its sites?

Almost three years after the 9-11 attacks on the United States, a week after the Department of Homeland Security issued a “high risk” Code Orange alert for prominent financial buildings here, in Washington and Newark, the year-old Secure Community Alert Network emergency warning system did not issue a crisis alert.

SCAN, which includes the nation’s leading Jewish organizations as well as hundreds of Jewish community centers, federations and schools, did not put its member organizations on notice last week because Jewish targets, based on available intelligence information, were not considered particularly at risk. Nor did they do so this week because the report about the Eldridge Street Synagogue was discounted.

The local Jewish community, whose sensitivity to security matters was raised after anti-Semitic incidents during the last decade, has taken the necessary steps to protect its institutions, said Yehudit Barsky, director of the American Jewish Committee’s Division on Middle East and International Terrorism.

Barsky, who declined to cite specific steps taken by Jewish institutions, added that the Jewish community “has been on alert since the city went on alert” last week, although the focus of the national security alert was financial buildings. “This has been going on since 9-11.”

“This has become pro forma whenever there is a security alert,” Barsky said. “That’s something that everyone has undertaken. For us not to think about the fact that Jewish institutions are part of [al-Qaeda’s possible targets] would be foolish.”

Synagogues, for example, were advised last week to discourage their congregants from remaining outside in large groups following Shabbat services, she said.

SCAN did not issue an alert this week, Barsky said, because the 10 participating organizations on the project’s management team lacked “specific” information, for instance when and where an attack on the Jewish community was likely to take place.

The Time article, which was based on intelligence gathered when the house of an al-Qaeda leader was raided July 24 and a load of computerized information was captured, implied but did not directly state that the report about the Eldridge Street Synagogue was based on the captured intelligence.

“Inside the secure war room at the Department of Homeland Security,” the Time article stated, “officials from various agencies marked dozens of potential targets, ranging from the IMF [International Monetary Fund] and the World Bank to New York City’s Federal Hall National Memorial, where George Washington was inaugurated as the first U.S. President, and the Eldridge Street Synagogue in lower Manhattan — a site singled out, an official says, because information on the [captured computer] discs reveals that al-Qaeda may try to target the Jewish community.”

“Did law enforcement say to us that the synagogue is a target?” Barsky asked.

No, she said.

If the answer were yes, she said, “We would advise [members of the SCAN network] to take extra precautions.”

Paul Browne, the New York Police Department’s deputy commissioner for public information, said in a statement, “Contrary to published reports, the Eldridge Street Synagogue has not been identified as a target in recently captured terrorist reconnaissance files.”

U.S. intelligence officials “did not find the name” of the Eldridge Street Synagogue in the captured intelligence files, said David Pollock, associate executive director of the Jewish Community Relations Council. “There is no recent specific information on Jewish targets” in al-Qaeda’s crosshairs, he said, but “there’s no reason not to believe that al-Qaeda’s traditional animus towards Jews continues.”

But, Pollock said, “Even a false report can lead to Jewish institutions reviewing their security precautions, and that’s a good thing.” He would not comment specifically on any security changes that might take place at Eldridge Street.

Al-Qaeda was linked to attacks on two synagogues in Turkey last year and on a synagogue in Tunisia in 2002.

A call from The Jewish Week to the Department of Homeland Security for comment on the Time article was not returned.

The 117-year-old Eldridge Street Synagogue, on a narrow street a block from the Manhattan Bridge, continued offering its tours this week and will open as usual this Shabbat for worship services.

“We’re behaving as we usually do,” said Amy Waterman, executive director of the Eldridge Street Project, which administers the building.

No tour groups canceled their reservations after the Time article appeared, she said.

The police will probably add street patrols, Waterman said.

“We’re always security minded,” she said. “This made us more so.”